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American Revolution History by ColonialAmerica.com
American Revolution History by ColonialAmerica.com
Legend: Selected Site Area Merchant Site Historic Site Historic Marker Historic Shipwreck
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1776 Mayflower : A Story of Courage, Community, and War
The Federalist Papers Bunker Hill: A City, a Siege, a Revolution
Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis Thomas Jefferson and the Opening of the American West John Adams
Benjamin Franklin : An American Life The Bloody & Brave History of Native American Warriors & the Women Who Supported Them
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We the Kids : The Preamble to the Constitution of the United States The New Americans : Colonial Times: 1620-1689 (The American Story)
The Notorious Benedict Arnold: A True Story of Adventure, Heroism & Treachery A History of US: Vol 3, From Colonies to Country (A History of Us)
Let It Begin Here!: Lexington & Concord: First Battles of the American Revolution George Washington, Spymaster: How the Americans Outspied the British and Won the Revolutionary War
They Called Her Molly Pitcher Now &  Ben : The Modern Inventions of Benjamin Franklin


Pirates and Traders: Gold! Hidden Treasures Hidden Object
Dedaloop (Kindle Fire Edition) Word Treasure
Treasure Island, The Experience Robinson Crusoe
The Patriots Hero Tales from American History - AudioBook

Selected Site

Rochambeau


Newport, RI, 02840




[ Left Marker : ]

On June eighteenth, 1781, General Rochambeau left Newport with his army to join the American forces on the Hudson, and on August nineteenth, 1781, the combined armies under command of General Washington began their victorious march to Yorktown.
*   *   *
This tablet presented by
Forsyth - Wickes

[ Right & Back Markers : ]
To Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur Count de Rochambeau Marshal of France 1725 - 1807, Commander-in-Chief of the French Army at the siege of Yorktown - October 6th, 1781

Presented to the City of Newport by
Kingsley Macomber - Paris, France
Dedicated July 13th, 1934
Mortimer A. Sullivan - Mayor   City of Newport
Willing Spencer - Chairman, Dedication Committee
Rededicated on this site July 4th, 1940
Hon. Perry Belmont - Chairman


Click on heading to visit the website (excludes markers).

Nearby Historic Sites

Almy-Taggart House



56 Farewell Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Benjamin Howland House



6 Bridge Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Beriah Brown House



41 Mill Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Brenton Counting House



39 Washington Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Brick Market Building



127 Thames St
Newport, RI, 02840

Brown Farm House



35 Green Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Buffum-Redwood House



74 Spring Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Buliod-Perry House



29 Touro Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Cahoone-Yates House



27 Green Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Captain George Buckmaster House



42 Division Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Captain William Read House



58 Thames Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Clarke-Rodman House



33 Farewell
Newport, RI, 02840

Coggeshall House



66 William Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Constant Tabor House



47 John Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Cotton House



32 Church Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Daniel Carr House



20 Division Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Daniel Lyman House



11 Third Street
Newport, RI, 02840

David Braman House



18 Thames Street
Newport, RI, 02840

David Bramen Sr. House



18 Thames Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Edith Corey House



30 Walnut Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Gideon Cornell House



3 Division Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Great Friends Meeting House



21 Farewell St.
Newport, RI, 02840

Harkness House



38 Green Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Hathaway-Macomber House



57 Thames Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Howland House



6 Bridge Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Hunter House



54 Washington Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Issac Dayton House



35 Washington Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Jahleel Brenton Counting House



39 Washington Street
Newport, RI, 02840

John Coddington House



2 Marlborough Street
Newport, RI, 02840

John Sisson House



21 Green Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Jonathan Gibbs House



181 Spring Street
Newport, RI, 02840

King's Arms Tavern



6 Cross Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Knowles-Perry House



31 Walnut Street
Providence, RI, 02840

Langley-King House



34 Pelham Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Loeb Visitor Center at Touro Synogogue



50 Spring St.
Newport, RI, 02840

Martha G. Pitman House



59 Bridge Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Metcalf Bowler House



122 Prospect Hill Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Mitchell Trevitt House



6 Elm Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Newport Artillery



23 Clarke Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Newport Colony House



Washington Square
Newport, RI, 02840

Newport History Tours



23 Americas Cup Ave
Newport, RI, 02840

Odlin-Otis House



109 Spring Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Phillip Stevens House



34 Thames Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Redwood Library



50 Bellevue Avenue
Newport, RI, 02840

Richardson-Peckham House



67 Thames Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Samuel Bours House



175 Spring Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Seventh Day Baptist Meetinghouse



82 Touro Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Sherborne-Nichols House



4 Elm Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Simon Pease House



32 Clarke Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Sisson Collins House



40 School Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Solomon Thornton-Elizabeth Wilder House



53-55 Thames Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Solomon Townsend House



51 Second Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Swansea House



3 Cozzens Court
Newport, RI, 02840

Taggart House



56 Farewell St.
Newport, RI, 02840

Thomas Townsend House



53 Bridge Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Touro Synagogue



85 Touro Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Trinity Church



One Queen Anne Square
Newport, RI, 02840

Vernon House



46 Clarke Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Wanton-Lyman-Hazard House



17 Broadway
Newport, RI, 02840

Whitehorne House



416 Thames St
Newport, RI, 02840

Wilder House



53 Thames St.
Newport, RI, 02840

William & Joseph Wanton House



25 Walnut Street
Newport, RI, 02840

William Lawton House



47 Poplar Street
Newport, RI, 02840

Click on any heading to visit the website.

Nearby Historical Markers

Captain John Warren House



Newport, RI, 02840

French Navy Artillery Headquarters 1780 - 1781

Hunter House



Newport, RI, 02840

has been designated a
Registered National
Historic Landmark
.
Under the provisions of the
Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935
this site possesses exceptional value
in commemorating and illustrating
the history of the United States

U.S. Department of the Interior
National Park Service
1968


Long Wharf



Long Wharf
Newport, RI, 02840

Long Wharf, in existence as early as 1685, was among several wharves in Newport that played a key role in establishing Newport as one of the five busiest ports in colonial America. During the 1760's, as many as 439 warehouses were used to accommodate the importing and exporting of goods by over 500 ships every year.

The funeral procession of Charles-Henri-Louis d'Arsac, chevalier de Ternay, commander of the French fleet, "filed from Long Wharf and crossed the Parade" on December 16, 1780 to his burial site at Trinity Church.

General Washington and comte de Rochambeau reviewed French troops on the wharf in 1781 in preparation for their march to Yorktown.

Militia Common



Newport, RI, 02840


This piece of land was given to the town of Newport by Major Nathaniel Sheffield and Mr. Daniel Thurston as common land to be used as a mustering place for the militia.

This marker dedicated by the Artillery
Company of Newport on their 250th year of continuous service.
1741 ----- 1991


Old State House



Newport, RI, 02840

has been designated a
Registered National
Historic Landmark

Under the provisions of the
Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935
this site possesses exceptional value
in commemorating and illustrating
the history of the United States

U.S. Department of the Interior
National Park Service
1962


Oliver Hazard Perry



Newport, RI, 02840

At the age of twenty seven years
he achieved
the Victory of Lake Erie
September 10, 1816

[ Right of Monument : ]
Born in South Kingstown, R.I.
August 23, 1785
Died at Port Spain, Trinidad
August 23, 1819
Aged 34 years

[ Back of Monument : ]
His remains
were conveyed to his native land
in a ship of war,
according to a resolution
of Congress
and were here interred.
December 4, 1826.

[ Left of Monument : ]
Erected
by
the State of
Rhode Island.


Perry



Newport, RI, 02840

[ Back of Monument : ]
"We have met the enemy
and they are ours"

Sept. 10th, 1813.


The Tree of Liberty



Newport, RI, 02840


To commemorate the repeal of the Stamp Act in March 1766, William Read deeded a small triangle of land at this site where grew the original Tree of Liberty, to William Ellery and others in trust. This tree was cut down by British occupation forces soon after their arrival on December 6, 1776.

A new tree was planted in April, 1783 by a group of thirteen citizens named on a copper plate placed on the tree in 1823 which is now in the Newport Historical Society Museum.

The present tree was planted in 1897 and rededicated in 1919 when Henrietta C. Ellery deeded this park to the city.

This memorial placed by the Rhode Island Society, Sons of the Revolution, to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Tree of Liberty.
August 29, 1966.


Tom Robinson House



Newport, RI, 02840

Home of
Quaker Tom Robinson
and his descendants
since 1759.
Headquarters of
Vicomte de Noailles, 1780-81


Community Histories


Newport

Newport

Newport was founded in 1639. Its eight founders and first officers were Nicholas Easton, William Coddington, John Clarke, John Coggeshall, William Brenton, Jeremy Clark, Thomas Hazard, and Henry Bull. They left Portsmouth, Rhode Island after a political fallout with Anne Hutchinson and her followers. As part of the agreement, Coddington and his followers took control of the southern side of the island. They were soon joined by Nicholas Easton, who had recently been expelled from Massachusetts for holding heretical beliefs. The settlement soon grew to be the largest of the four original towns of Rhode Island. Many of the first colonists in Newport quickly became Baptists, and in 1640 the second Baptist congregation in Rhode Island was formed under the leadership of John Clarke.

Peace did not last long in Newport, as many did not like Coddington's autocratic style. As a result, by 1650 a counter faction led by Nicholas Easton was formed. The Coddington/Easton divide would dominate Newport politics for much of the 17th century. Newport soon grew to become the most important port in colonial Rhode Island. A public school was established in 1640.

In 1658 a group of Jews fleeing the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal were allowed to settle in Newport (Jews fleeing Brazil after defending Dutch interests there against the Portuguese were denied the right to stay in then-Dutch New York until governor Peter Stuyvesant finally relented in 1655; seeking asylum in Spain and Portugal was not an option). The Newport congregation, now referred to as Congregation Jeshuat Israel, is the second oldest Jewish congregation in the United States and meets in the oldest standing synagogue in the United States, Touro Synagogue.

In 1663 the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations received its Royal Charter and Benedict Arnold (1615–1678) was elected its first Governor at Newport. Upon its completion in 1741, the Old Colony House at the head of what is now known as Washington Square served as a seat of Rhode Island's government, until the current Rhode Island State House in Providence was completed in 1904 and Providence became the state's sole capital city.

The beginning of the commercial activity which raised Newport to its fame as a rich port was begun by a second wave of Portuguese Jews who settled there about the middle of the 18th century. They had been practicing Judaism in secret for three hundred years in Portugal, liable to torture and murder by the Inquisition if they were caught, and were attracted to Rhode Island because of the freedom of worship there. They brought with them commercial experience and connections, capital and a spirit of enterprise. Most prominent among those were Jacob Rodrigues Rivera (died 1789), who arrived in 1745, and Aaron Lopez, who came in 1750. The former introduced into America the manufacture of sperm oil, which became one of the leading industries and made Newport rich. Newport, whose inhabitants were engaged in whale fishing, developed 17 manufactories of oil and candles and enjoyed a practical monopoly of this trade down to the Revolution.

Aaron Lopez (died May 28, 1782), who fled to Newport from Lisbon in 1752, is credited with making Newport an important center of trade. "To him in a larger degree than to any one else was due the rapid commercial development which made Newport for a quarter of a century afterward the most formidable rival of New York." He induced 40 Portuguese Jewish families to settle there. Within fourteen years of Lopez’ activity, Newport had 150 vessels engaged in trade. Lopez was involved in the slave trade, manufactured spermaceti candles, ships, barrels, rum, chocolate, textiles, clothes, shoes, hats, and bottles. He became the wealthiest man in Newport, but was denied citizenship on religious grounds, even though British law protected the rights of Jews to become citizens. He appealed to the Rhode Island legislature for redress and was refused with this ruling: “Inasmuch as the said Aaron Lopez hath declared himself by religion a Jew, this Assembly doth not admit himself nor any other of that religion to the full freedom of this Colony. So that the said Aaron Lopez nor any other of said religion is not liable to be chosen into any office in this colony nor allowed to give vote as a free man in choosing others.” Lopez persisted by applying for citizenship in Massachusetts, where it was granted. Much of the commercial activity was centered on the area called Washington Square, which was once the center of both the commercial and civic life of the colonial city.

In the early 17th century, a large number of Quakers also settled in Newport. The evidence of this population can be seen today in the fact that many streets in the oldest part of town known as "The Point", are named after trees. The Quaker meetinghouse in Newport (1699) is the oldest house of worship in Rhode Island. In 1727, James Franklin (brother of Benjamin) was printing in Newport; in 1732, he published the first newspaper, the Rhode Island Gazette. In 1758, his son James founded the Mercury, a weekly paper. Throughout the 18th century the famous Goddard and Townsend furniture was made in Newport.

Throughout the 18th century, Newport suffered from an imbalance of trade with the largest colonial ports. As a result, Newport merchants were forced to develop alternatives to conventional exports.

Newport was also a major center of pirate activity during the late 17th and early 18th century. So many pirates used Newport as their base of operations that the London Board of Trade made an official complaint to the English government. The most famous pirate who made Newport his base was Thomas Tew. Tew was very popular with the locals; after one of his pirating voyages, it was reported that almost the whole town came out to greet him.

In the 1720s, colonial leaders, acting under pressure from the British government, arrested many pirates. Many were hanged in Newport and were buried on Goat Island.

During the colonial period, Newport was the center of the slave trade in New England. Newport was active in the “triangle trade,” in which slave-produced sugar and molasses from the Caribbean were carried to Rhode Island and distilled into rum, which was then carried to West Africa and exchanged for captives. In 1764, Rhode Island had about 30 rum distilleries, 22 in Newport alone. Many of the great fortunes made during this period were made in the slave trade. The Common Burial Ground on Farewell Street was where most of the slaves were buried. Sixty percent of slave trading voyages launched from North America – in some years more than 90% – issued from tiny Rhode Island, many from Newport. Almost half were trafficked illegally, breaking a 1787 state law prohibiting residents of the state from trading in slaves. Slave traders were also breaking federal statutes of 1794 and 1800 barring Americans from carrying slaves to ports outside the United States, and the 1807 Congressional act abolishing the transatlantic slave trade. A few Rhode Island families made substantial fortunes in the trade. William and Samuel Vernon, Newport merchants who later played an important role in financing the creation of the United States Navy, sponsored thirty African slaving ventures. However, it was the D’Wolfs of Bristol, RI, and most notably James De Wolf, who were the largest slave trading family in all of North America, mounting more than eighty transatlantic voyages, most illegal. The Rhode Island slave trade was broadly based. Seven hundred Rhode Islanders owned or captained slave ships, including most substantial merchants, and many ordinary shopkeepers and tradesmen, who purchased shares in slaving voyages,

During the American Revolution, Newport was the scene of much activity. One of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, William Ellery, came from Newport. He later served on the Naval Committee.

In the winter of 1775 and 1776, the Rhode Island Legislature put militia General William West in charge of rooting out loyalists in Newport, and several notable individuals such as Joseph Wanton and Thomas Vernon were exiled to the northern part of the state. In the fall of 1776, the British, seeing that Newport could be used as a naval base to attack New York (which they had recently occupied) took over the city. The population of Newport had divided loyalties and many pro independence "Patriots" left town while loyalist "Tories" remained. For the next three years Newport was a British stronghold.

In the summer of 1778, the Americans began the campaign known as the Battle of Rhode Island. This was the first joint operation between the Americans and the French after the signing of the Treaty of Alliance. The Americans based in Tiverton, planned a formal siege of the town. However, the French (wanting a frontal assault) refused to take part in the siege. This weakened the American position and the British were able to expel the Americans from the island. The following year, the British, wanting to concentrate their forces in New York, abandoned Newport.

On July 10, 1780, a French expedition sent by King Louis XVI commanded by Rochambeau arrived with an army of 450 officers and 5,300 men in Narragansett Bay off Newport. For the rest of the war Newport was the base of the French forces in the United States. In July 1781, Rochambeau was finally able to leave Newport for Providence to begin the decisive march to Yorktown, Virginia along with General George Washington. The first Catholic mass in Rhode Island was said in Newport during this time. Rochambeau Monument in Kings Park on Wellington Avenue along Newport Harbor commemorates Rochambeau's contributions to the Revolutionary War and to Newport's history.

By the time the war ended (1783) Newport's population had fallen from over 9,000 (according to the census of 1774) to less than 4,000. Over 200 abandoned buildings were torn down in the 1780s. Also, the war destroyed Newport's economic wealth, as years of military occupation closed the city to any form of trade. The Newport merchants moved away, some to Providence, others to Boston and New York.

It was in Newport in 1791 that the Rhode Island General Assembly, acting under pressure from the merchant community of Providence, voted to ratify the Constitution and become the 13th state.

The city is the site of the last residence of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the birthplace of Commodore Matthew C. Perry and the Reverend William Ellery Channing.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newport,_Rhode_Island ", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0