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American Revolution History by
American Revolution History by
Legend: Selected Site Area Merchant Site Historic Site Historic Marker Historic Shipwreck
Marker data courtesy of   Some map icons courtesy of Map Icons Collection

1776 Mayflower : A Story of Courage, Community, and War
The Federalist Papers Bunker Hill: A City, a Siege, a Revolution
Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis Thomas Jefferson and the Opening of the American West John Adams
Benjamin Franklin : An American Life The Bloody & Brave History of Native American Warriors & the Women Who Supported Them
Click here for additional books

We the Kids : The Preamble to the Constitution of the United States The New Americans : Colonial Times: 1620-1689 (The American Story)
The Notorious Benedict Arnold: A True Story of Adventure, Heroism & Treachery A History of US: Vol 3, From Colonies to Country (A History of Us)
Let It Begin Here!: Lexington & Concord: First Battles of the American Revolution George Washington, Spymaster: How the Americans Outspied the British and Won the Revolutionary War
They Called Her Molly Pitcher Now &  Ben : The Modern Inventions of Benjamin Franklin

Pirates and Traders: Gold! Hidden Treasures Hidden Object
Dedaloop (Kindle Fire Edition) Word Treasure
Treasure Island, The Experience Robinson Crusoe
The Patriots Hero Tales from American History - AudioBook

Selected Site

John G. Benson House

Englewood, NJ, 07631

Built c. 1800 by John G. Benson, a farmer, and from 1794 to 1797, a captain in the militia. This house, an example of post-Revolutionary War Dutch Colonial architecture, was built on property confiscated by New Jersey from the Reverend Garret Lydecker, a Tory during the American Revolution.

Sponsored by Englewood Environmental Commission 1974

Click on heading to visit the website (excludes markers).

Nearby Historic Sites

NJ Palisades

2400 Hudson Ter
Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

South Schraalenburgh Church

150 West Church Street
Bergenfield, NJ, 07621

Click on any heading to visit the website.

Nearby Historical Markers

"Achter Col" Colony

Bogota, NJ, 07603

In 1642, when this area was part of New Netherland, Johannes Winckelman built near here a ninety-foot long fur trading post and farmhouse - a building which sheltered both settlers and cattle. During the 1643 Indian war it was protected by five Dutch soldiers but on the night of September 17, 1643, it was attacked and burned to the ground by the Hackensack and Tappan Indians. This section of Bogota was known as "Winkelman" for many years.

Sponsored by Ralph H. Hall Post No. 5561, V.F.W. and Ladies’ Aux. 1974

Abatis Construction at Fort Lee

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

Fortifications were protected by obstacles, such as an abatis, or other major hindrances to assaulting troops. They were easily placed before a parapet, or breastwork, wherever trees were plentiful and were used to supplement defensive rampart walls or barricades.

Derived from the French word meaning heap of material thrown together, the abatis was built of piles of trees or large branches sharpened to a point and turned toward the enemy’s approach. They were entangled to form an impassable barrier for cavalry and infantry.

At Fort Lee, maps show than an abatis was placed to provide protection from an assault from the northwest exposure.

The use of an abatis either alone or together with other entanglements, led to an extensive tree-chopping program to supply logs for these obstructions and for battery emplacements as well as to provide timber for huts and firewood for cooking and heating.

Maps show that the fortification built on the high ground to the west was rectangular in shape with bastions at each corner. It undoubtedly was built to provide additional protection to the important batteries on the bluff and to prevent their capture by a land assault.

African American Baptist Church Cemetery

Bergenfield, NJ, 07621

Francis Jackson, a freed slave, purchased 7 ¾ acres of woodland here in 1868. Later it would include the black cemetery and "a plain neat little church" built about 1873. The Pastor, Rev. Nicholas Fr. Jackson, lived nearby. The cemetery had 72 burial plots which may have included former slaves. Tombstones no longer exist but some families who rest here are Jackson, Pomplin, Bell, Sisco, Brown, Chase, Blenus, Napson and James.

A Bergenfield Historic Site, 1996.

Brinkerhoff-Demarest House

Teaneck, NJ, 07666

This old house was built around 1735 by Hendricks Brinkerhoff on land owned by his grandfather since the 17th century. An excellent example of early Dutch Architecture, it has been in the possession of the Brinkerhoff and Demarest descendants since it was built, and is one of the oldest in Bergen County.

Sponsored by Bergen County Post No. 208 American Legion The first Women’s Post in N.J. in the Tercentenary year 1964.

British & Hessian Invasion

Tenafly, NJ, 07670

Route of the 1776 British & Hessian invasion.


Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

The word "cannon" is derived from the Latin canna, meaning tube, pipe or gun and dates back to the 13th Century. In the 1400’s, the term described a cylinder made from iron bars "soldered" together and fortified with iron hoops.

By the 18th Century, cannon barrels were cast in one piece and designated by the weight of the shot they fired. The largest weapons at Fort Lee were the 32 pounders which had an overall length of 10 feet and were able to develop a high muzzle velocity of up to 1,300 feet per second.

Loading and Firing
The gunnery crew, consisting of 7 to 12 men, inserted the powder charge and compacted it with a rammer. The projectile, either a solid shot or bar shot for ripping and splintering masts and rigging or an incendiary shell for setting ship decks afire - was loaded into the barrel. The cannoneer, sighting the target and depending on experience and long hours of practice, aimed the piece and ordered the cannon fired. A burning stick, or lint-stock, was used to ignite the powder in the vent.

De Mott - Westervelt House

Englewood, NJ, 07631

Built about 1808 by Henry DeMott, this sandstone Dutch Colonial house was once attached to the pre-Revolutionary homestead of Albert Lydecker. Material from the older house used in the present frame wing built c. 1810 by Peter Westervelt. The Westervelt family owned the homestead until 1936. Adjacent Dutch Barn is an adaptation of the European "bouwhuys", or farmhouse, where men and cattle lived under one roof.

Sponsored by the Englewood Bicentennial Committee. 1976

Fort Lee Historic Park

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

Beneath these cliffs, Henry Hudson’s Half-Moon was welcomed by the Lenni Lenape Indians on September 3, 1609.

Nearly 167 years later, this giant Bluff Rock became a strategic stronghold in the American War for Independence as the conflict raged within view of this spot from early July through November 20, 1776. Around this fortification, first called "The Mountain," then "Fort Constitution" and later "Fort Lee," the American defense fought for control of the Hudson River.

General Washington laid out the emplacements on this site to delay British plans to crush the American rebellion.

Fort Lee, furnished with heavy artillery and paired with Manhattan’s Fort Washington, located across the river, served as a formidable obstacle to British warships attempting to sail along the Hudson River.

Fort Lee Road

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

Fort Lee Road (Main Street) was the main roadway to General Washington’s Headquarters in Hackensack. Supplies and men were in constant movement on the road to re-supply Fort Washington in New York. The Continental Army began it’s "Retreat to Victory" on this road. Its link to the New Bridge Crossing on the Hackensack River saved the Continental Army from capture. This would have ended the War for Independence.

General George Washington

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

General Washington was in Fort Lee many times during the Battle of New York. His main headquarters was in Hackensack, but had a temporary headquarters in Fort Lee near Anderson Avenue and Elizabeth Street. His main objective in Fort Lee was to observe and see that Fort Washington, across the Hudson River, was well prepared for the coming battle with British forces. He also wanted to make sure that the British fleet did not sail up the Hudson River. By standing on the top of the palisades in Fort Lee, he had a good view of what was going on in the Battle of New York. General Washington was responsible for changing the name of the town from Fort Constitution to Fort Lee.

General Henry Knox

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

General Knox was the Commander of the Continental Army Artillery. He was in charge of the placement of the artillery cannons on the palisades in Fort Lee. His main objective was to stop the British fleet from sailing up the Hudson River. He was one of two generals to serve Washington throughout the Revolutionary War.

General Horatio Gates

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

General Gates was commissioned a Brigadier General and was appointed Adjutant General of the Continental Army in 1775 by orders of General Washington. He was in Fort Lee with General Washington in October 1776.

General Hugh Mercer

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

Fort Lee was constructed by General Mercer on October 18, 1776 on orders from General George Washington. Originally called Fort Constitution, it was re-christened Fort Lee in honor of General Charles Lee, second in command of the Continental Army, by orders of General George Washington. Monument Park was the campgrounds for the Continental Army troops. General Mercer was killed at the Battle of Princeton on January 12, 1777.

General Nathaniel Greene

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

General Greene took command of Fort Lee on September 17, 1776 from General James Iwing. At that time there were around 2,667 troops stationed in Fort Lee. The encampment was the main quartermaster post for supplying men and equipment to Fort Washington on the New York side of the Hudson River during the Battle of New York. General Greene was a personal friend of George Washington and was one of the two generals to serve Washington throughout the war. He became a hero fighting the British in the Carolinas.

George Washington Memorial Monument

Leonia, NJ, 07605

On November 20th 1776, General George Washington and part of the Continental Army on their march from Fort Lee to Trenton passed this way.

Erected July 4th, 1915

Liberty Pole

Englewood, NJ, 07631

This area named for a Liberty Pole erected here before the Revolution. The strategic junction was the scene of many American and British troop movements, including the 1776 retreat of the Continental Army from Fort Lee, and British activity in 1776 and 1778. The American encampment and HQ of General Washington in 1780; also present were Lt. Col. Alexander Hamilton and General Anthony Wayne. Site of the Liberty Pole Tavern.

Sponsored by the Englewood Bicentennial Committee 1976

Liberty Pole

Englewood, NJ, 07631

The Liberty Pole erected here in 1766 to celebrate repeal of Stamp Act has been replaced several times. Present one, 1964.

Military Magazine

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

The military magazine derives its name from the Arabic word, "Makhazin", meaning granary, or storehouse. Revolutionary War magazines were constructed with emphasis on fire and waterproofing, easy accessibility to the guns serviced and security from enemy fire.

A typical magazine had thick native stone walls filled with soil which protected a massive brick archway where the munitions were housed. A wooden door leading to the storage area provided ready access to the gun-powder stores while minimizing the hazard of an enemy round striking the explosive powder.

To safeguard the munitions from adverse weather, a sloping board or shingled roof was built atop the stone walls to furnish a secure gunpowder storage area.

Gunpowder is a mixture of saltpeter, sulphur and charcoal. When compressed and ignited this black powder explodes and can propel shot or cannon balls from muzzle-loaded rifles, mortars and artillery.

Old Army Road

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

Old Army Road, now called Palisade Road, was used by General Washington and his staff to reach the palisades for observing movement on the Hudson River crossings and New York. The road was also used to re-supply General Knox’s artillery positioned on the palisades, as well as sending troops to Fort Washington in New York.

Old Slave Cemetery

Bergenfield, NJ, 07621

Founded 1672

Rededicated May 17, 1964

Restored by the Boy Scouts of Bergenfield.

Palisades Interstate Park

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

Palisades Interstate Park
has been designated a
Registered National
Historic Landmark
under the provisions of the
Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935
this site possesses exceptional value
in commemorating and illustrating
the History of the United States.

U.S. Department of the Interior
National Park Service

Revolutionary War Encampment - 1780

Teaneck, NJ, 07666

Troops of the American army camped in this vicinity from August 22 to September 3, 1780, in order to forage for food and horses. The encampment extended to the north and east of Teaneck Road for about two miles. Situated near British-held New York City and mindful of enemy danger, General George Washington urged his men to display "that conduct, fortitude and bravery which ought to distinguish troops fighting for their country".

Sponsored by Holy Name Hospital 1975

Roelof Westervelt House

Tenafly, NJ, 07670

This house is a fine example of Dutch Colonial architecture. The south wing of the house was built by Roelof Westervelt in 1745. The land had been purchased by his grandfather, in 1695, from the Lord Proprietores of East Jersey. The central section of the house was completed around 1798, and the north wing was added in 1825. Ownership of the house remained in the Westervelt family until 1923. Listed by Historic American Buildings Survey, New Jersey 9.
Sponsored by the Mayor and Council of Tenafly in 1965.

Soldier Hut

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

At Fort Lee, "hutting" - the building of permanent huts - was started at General Greene’s command to:

"Fix proper places for barracks, none to be nearer the fort than 50 rods…build timber huts…boards are to be had only for the roof. The huts were to be 12 feet long by 9 feet wide, to have stone chimneys and to be ranged in proper streets."

The huts, each housing 8 men, had earth flooring with sod, mud and clay used to chink the log timbers. Stone, used for the fireplace and chimney, was cemented with clay or possibly lime mortar.

As late as 1900, just about 50 rods (825 feet) from the bastion site at the edge of Fort Lee Borough, stone heaps lined in regular rows could still be seen marking the location of some of those huts.

South Church

Bergenfield, NJ, 07621

Organized in 1723 as the Schraalenburg Dutch Reformed Church. First church erected in 1728, 150 feet to the east, the present building in 1799. The True Reformed Church was founded here in 1822. The church became Presbyterian in 1913. John Henry Goetschius, minister from 1748 to 1774, the principal founder of Queens College (Rutgers), and many Revolutionary War soldiers are buried in the churchyard.

The Barbette Battery

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024

This battery was believed to be the "Barbette Battery" as its location commanded a large field of fire of the river, stretching North to South from the Chevaux-De-Frise to the Bluff Rock’s southern edge.

A Barbette Battery’s guns fired over a low wall rather than through openings in the battery wall and was likened to "spitting over one’s beard". The word, "barbette", is derived from the French term for "beard".

Field Cannons
It is believed that this battery consisted of five heavy iron cannons capable of firing 24 pound balls. The wide area covered by this emplacement required its guns to be mobile and they were therefore mounted on traveling carriages enabling artillery fire to be aimed at several ships or to be concentrated on a single target.

The battery was constructed on a stone base and its cannon platform was covered with planking sloped upward in the rear to lessen cannon recoil. The parapet was built of fascines and was filled with earth. The battery wings were built higher to afford protection from enemy fire.

The Christie-Parsels House

Tenafly, NJ, 07670

Stands on land purchased by William P. Christie for 500 pounds for 100 acres. In 1804 he built his home. Following his sudden death, in order to be fair to the many heirs, the house and the land were sold at auction to three buyers. In 1836 Samuel Parsels erected the large wing east of the Christie House. In 1860 he sold his property to Charles Newcomb. This example of an early split-level house is listed by the Historic American Buildings Survey, New Jersey, 470.
Sponsored by the Tenafly Mayor and Council in 1965.

Thomas Paine

Fort Lee, NJ, 07024


"Common Sense"                     "American Crisis"
  January 10, 1776                   December 19, 1776

Thomas Paine volunteered for the Continental Army. He marched to Amboy, New Jersey, located off the tip of Staten Island where the British began the invasion of New York. He arrived before the first 9,3000 Redcoats landed and stayed until the fighting went north. Paine then went to Fort Lee where General Nathaniel Greene appointed him as one of his aides. While stationed at Fort Lee, he authored "The American Crisis" pamphlet which contained the famous quote "These are the times that try men’s souls." Fort Lee (Monument Park area) is the site where this most influential writing was conceived. Paine’s passion and writings about freedom had a great influence on many of the delegates that created the Declaration of Independence.

Vreeland House

Leonia, NJ, 07605

Located in old English Neighborhood on land purchased by Dirck Vreeland before the Revolution, the homestead stretched between the Hudson River and Overpeck Creek. The stone wing of this house was built about 1786 and later was remodeled. Son Michael D. Vreeland added the main Dutch style house about 1815 which is noted for its Federal decorative detail. It remained in the Vreeland family until 1928.

Sponsored by Walter and Jean Cronan 1985.
In National Register of Historic Places

Community Histories

Fort Lee


Englewood, like the rest of New Jersey, was populated by Lenape Native Americans prior to European colonization. The Lenape who lived in the Englewood region were of the "turtle clan" which used a stylized turtle as its symbol, but little else is known of those inhabitants.

When Henry Hudson sailed up what would become known as the Hudson River in 1607, he claimed the entirety of the watershed of the river, including Englewood, for the Netherlands, making the future region of Englewood a part of New Netherland. However, the region remained largely unsettled under Dutch rule as the Dutch did little to encourage settlement north of modern Hudson County, as the imposing New Jersey Palisades blocked expansion on the west bank of the Hudson.

In 1664, after the Dutch surrendered all of New Netherland to England, the rate of settlement picked up. The English were generous with land grants, and many families, not only English but also Dutch and Huguenot, settled the area, which during the colonial era was known as the English Neighborhood. Street names in Englewood still recall the relative diversity of its earliest settlers; Brinckerhoff, Van Brunt, Lydecker, Van Nostrand and Durie (Duryea), all Dutch; Demarest (de Marais), DeMott and Lozier (Le Sueur), French Huguenot; and Moore, Lawrence, Cole and Day, English.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article ",_New_Jersey", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0

Fort Lee

Fort Lee is named for General Charles Lee after George Washington and his troops had camped at Mount Constitution overlooking Burdett's Landing, in defense of New York City. It was during Washington's retreat in November 1776 (beginning along a road which is now Main Street) that Thomas Paine composed his pamphlet, The American Crisis, which began with the recognized phrase, "These are the times that try men's souls". These events are recalled at Monument Park and Fort Lee Historic Park.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article ",_New_Jersey", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0


The origin and meaning of the name "Teaneck" is not known, but speculation is that it could come from various Dutch or English words, or it could be Native American in origin, meaning "the woods". An alternative is from the Dutch "Tiene Neck" meaning "neck where there are willows" (from the Dutch "tene" meaning willow).

When Europeans first entered the area, "Teaneck" referred to the north-south ridge that runs along present-day Queen Anne Road, with Lenni Lenape Native Americans having established camps on either side of the ridge. The Lenape in the area were led by a chief named Oratam, who led a group that lived in a village called Achikinhesacky, on the banks of the Tantaqua (Overpeck Creek), on the eastern slope of Teaneck Ridge near today's Fycke Lane. Conflicts between Europeans and Native Americans continued into the mid-17th century.

The first mention of permanent structures within the boundaries of present-day Teaneck dates to 1704. In subsequent years, houses and farm buildings were built on the west bank of the Hackensack River, along the route of a Native American trail. The neighborhood that grew here came to be known as East Hackensack or New Hackensack. Another small group of Dutch farm houses was constructed along the eastern slope of the Teaneck ridge along modern Teaneck Road. There are several of these early stone houses still standing that date back to Teaneck's 17th and 18th century Dutch farm heritage.

During November 1776, General George Washington passed through Teaneck during the withdrawal of Colonial forces from nearby Fort Lee on the Hudson River. Early on the morning of November 20, 1776, Washington rode by horseback from his headquarters in Hackensack through Teaneck and across Overpeck Creek to Fort Lee. There he watched as 6,000 British troops made their way by boats up the Hudson River. He had his troops abandon their position on the Palisades. They hastily made their way from their encampment, leaving behind their camp and most of their supplies, traveling across Overpeck Creek and through Teaneck to New Bridge Landing (today's Brett Park). They crossed the bridge, marching barefoot, two abreast, their garments so worn that they were exposed to the cold rain that fell that day. Throughout the war, both British and American forces occupied local homesteads at various times, and Teaneck citizens played key roles on both sides of the conflict.

After the war, Teaneck returned to being a quiet farm community. Fruits and vegetables grown locally were taken by wagon to busy markets in nearby Paterson and New York City.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0