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American Revolution History by ColonialAmerica.com
American Revolution History by ColonialAmerica.com
Legend: Selected Site Area Merchant Site Historic Site Historic Marker Historic Shipwreck
Marker data courtesy of hmdb.org   Some map icons courtesy of Map Icons Collection



1776 Mayflower : A Story of Courage, Community, and War
The Federalist Papers Bunker Hill: A City, a Siege, a Revolution
Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis Thomas Jefferson and the Opening of the American West John Adams
Benjamin Franklin : An American Life The Bloody & Brave History of Native American Warriors & the Women Who Supported Them
Click here for additional books


We the Kids : The Preamble to the Constitution of the United States The New Americans : Colonial Times: 1620-1689 (The American Story)
The Notorious Benedict Arnold: A True Story of Adventure, Heroism & Treachery Behind Rebel Lines: The Incredible Story of Emma Edmonds, Civil War Spy
A History of US: Vol 3, From Colonies to Country (A History of Us) Let It Begin Here!: Lexington & Concord: First Battles of the American Revolution
George Washington, Spymaster: How the Americans Outspied the British and Won the Revolutionary War They Called Her Molly Pitcher


Pirates and Traders: Gold! Hidden Treasures Hidden Object
Dedaloop (Kindle Fire Edition) Word Treasure
Treasure Island, The Experience Robinson Crusoe
The Patriots Hero Tales from American History - AudioBook

Selected Site

The Georgia Hussars


Savannah, GA, 31401




Organized 13 February 1736 This troop of Mounted Rangers was raised by General Oglethorpe to patrol and protect the Colony of Georgia from the Spaniards and Indians. It fought at Bloody Marsh in 1742 and at the Siege of Savannah in 1779. Its record during The War 1861-1865 is unsurpassed as was its service in Mexico, World War I, World War II and Korea. It remained Horse Cavalry until October 1940. From Colonial times to Vietnam, Hussars have represented Savannah in all our Wars. It is still an active unit in the Georgia Army National Guard.

Click on heading to visit the website (excludes markers).

Nearby Historic Sites

Davenport House Museum



324 East State Street
Savannah, GA, 31401

Click on any heading to visit the website.

Nearby Historical Markers

1812 Wesley Chapel



Savannah, GA, 31401

Savannah Methodism's first church building was erected on this corner of Lincoln and South Broad (now Oglethorpe) streets in 1812 by its first pastor, Rev. James Russell. Bishop Francis Asbury preached twice in Wesley Chapel on November 21, 1813. In 1819-1820 under the preaching of William Capers the membership grew rapidly, and in 1821 John Howard enlarged the building to care for 100 new members. By 1848 this 'good, neat house, sixty by forty feet', became too small; at a new location its successor, Trinity, was built.

Among the early pastors of Wesley Chapel were James O. Andrew, George F. Pierce, Ignatius A. Few, and Thomas L. Wynn.

Archibald Bulloch



Savannah, GA, 31401

This is no time to talk of moderation; in the present instance it ceases to be a virtue.'
Speech to Provincial Congress, JUNE ?, 1776

Foremost among Georgia's Revolutionary patriots stood Archibald Bulloch whose remains rest in this vault. An early and staunch advocate of American rights, Bulloch was among the patriots who issued the call in 1774 for the first province-wide meeting of the friends of Liberty in Georgia.

He served as President of the 1st and the 2nd Provincial Congress & was a delegate in 1775 to the Continental Congress where he won John Adams' praise for his 'abilities and fortitude.'

In April, 1776, Mr. Bulloch became the first President and Commander in Chief of Georgia, an office he ably filled until his untimely death during the latter part of February, 1777. His loss was a severe blow to the revolutionary cause in Georgia as his was the only leadership which united the Whig factions in the troubled young State.

Theodore Roosevelt was the great-great-grandson of the Georgia patriot.

Attack on British Lines



Savannah, GA, 31401

Over this ground, hallowed by the valor and the sacrifice of the soldiery of America and of France, was fought October 9, 1779, one of the bloodiest battles of the Revolution when Savannah, which the British had possessed for several months, was attacked by the combined American and French forces.

A short distance west of this marker stood the famous Spring Hill Redoubt and along here ran the line of entrenchments built by the British around Savannah. After a three weeks siege, the Allies stormed the enemy works in this area early on October 9th.

Arrayed in the opposing armies that day were soldiers of many lands -- American Continentals, Grenadiers of Old France, Irishmen in the service of King Louis XVI, Polish Lancers, French Creoles, and Negro volunteers from Haiti, fighting for American Independence against English Redcoats, Scotch Highlanders, Hessians, Royalist provincials from New York, Tory militia, armed slaves, and Cherokee Indians.

After an heroic effort to dislodge the British the Allies retired with heavy losses. Thus the siege was lifted, and the French fleet sailed from Georgia, ending an episode of far-reaching significance in the American Revolution.

Augusta Road



Savannah, GA, 31401

Northwest of this spot, on Liberty and West Broad Streets began the Augusta road, one of the oldest in Georgia.

Birthplace of the University Of Georgia



Savannah, GA, 31401

Directly across Bay Street from this marker formerly stood the brick building. Built in late colonial days and known as the "Coffee House." In which the Legislature of Georgia met in 1785. Owned by Thomas Stone, it was described in a newspaper advertisement in 1785 as having "ten large, cool, elegant rooms" and as "not equaled by any other house in the state" for "business, and convenience for a large family."

While meeting in the house owned by Thomas Stone the House Of Assembly of Georgia enacted on January 28, 1785, an act for the "establishment of a public seat if learning in this state"- the preamble reciting that is was "among the first objects of those who wish well to the national prosperity, to encourage and support the principles of religion and morality, and early to place the youth under the forming hand of society, that by instruction they may be molded to the love of virtue and good order."

The charter granted to the Board of Trustees of the University of Georgia in 1785 was the first charter issued in the United States to a state university.

British Evacuation



Savannah, GA, 31401

Commemorative
of the
British Evacuation Of Savannah
1782
Presented to the
City of Savannah
By the
Lachlan McIntosh Chapter
Daughters Of
The American Revolution
1904


Button Gwinnett



Savannah, GA, 31401

This Memorial to
Button Gwinnett
Born 1735       Died 1777
Georgia Signer of The Declaration of Independence
President of Georgia
Whose remains, buried in this cemetery, are believed to lie entombed hereunder. Was erected by the
Savannah - Chatham County
Historic Site and Monument Commission
with monies contributed by
The State of Georgia - The City of Savannah
and the Georgia Societies Of The
Sons Of The Revolution, Daughters Of The American Revolution
Society of Colonial Wars and Colonial Dames of America


Capt. Denis N. Cottineau (1745-1808)



Savannah, GA, 31401

This grave links Savannah with one of history's greatest naval dramas - the epic fight in 1779 between the 'Bon Homme Richard' and 'Serapis' in which John Paul Jones immortalized himself. Denis Nicolas Cottineau de Kerloguen received a commission in the Continental Navy during the American Revolution. Commanding the slow sailing "Pallas" during the famous naval engagement of September 23, 1779, Capt. Cottineau, by skillful seamanship, forced H.M.S. "Countess of Scarborough" to strike her colors. He was subsequently wounded in a duel with another officer, Pierre Landais, against whom Commodore Jones made serious charges after the battle.

Cottineau later settled in the French West Indies. During the slave insurrection in San Domingo he fled to Pennsylvania where he joined several fellow French refugees in establishing a colony. Suffering from a "lingering illness," he came to Savannah early in 1808. Capt. Cottineau died here, Nov. 29 of that year, at the residence of Abbe Carles. Cottineau’s widow was the sister of the Marquis de Montalet who once owned the Hermitage plantation near Savannah.

In 1928 Ambassador Paul Claudel of France knelt in homage here at the grave of the gallant Frenchman who helped establish the prestige of the infant American Navy.

Captain Denis Cottineau De Kerloguen



Savannah, GA, 31401

In Honor and Grateful Memory of
Captain Denis Cottineau De Kerloguen
who was born in Nantes, France and died in Savannah Ga.,
November 20, 1808, aged 63 Years. In the war for American Independence
he fought with John Paul Jones in the famous battle between
the Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis, on September 23, 1779,
in which he commanded the Pallas, a ship of war of the
United States, and rendered noble service to the American cause.
For his part in this engagement he was praised by Capt. Jones
and by Benjamin Franklin, and was decorated with the
Cross of St. Louis by the French Government.
He was a member of The Society Of The Cincinnati
in the state of Georgia.

Erected on the 150th Anniversary of the Battle of the
Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis
By the City of Savannah and Patriotic Societies.


Capture of Savannah December 29, 1778



Savannah, GA, 31401

When the British attacked Savannah on December 29, 1778, the defending Continental forces, numbering about 650 men under command of Maj. Gen. Robert Howe, were posted across Sea Island Road (now Wheaton street) approximately 100 yards east of this marker.

The British army, 2500 strong, landed near Brewton Hill at daybreak on Dec. 29. It consisted of part of the 71st Highland Regt., New York Loyalists, and Hessians, and was commanded by Lt. Col. Archibald Campbell. The British promptly marched on Savannah. They halted on the road about 800 yards from the American battle line and deployed for attack.

Col. Campbell meanwhile learned of an unguarded pass through the swamp, which led around the right of the American line. He there upon detached the Light Infantry under Sir James Baird in an attempt, which proved successful, to flank the Continental position here.

Outflanked, the American position became untenable and Gen. Howe ordered Savannah evacuated. During the withdrawal, the Georgia Brigade, commanded by Gen. Lachlan McIntosh, was cut off and suffered heavy casualties.

During the subsequent siege of Savannah by the French and Americans in 1779 the British line of defenses around the Town ran through this area.

Casimir Pulaski



Savannah, GA, 31401

The great Polish patriot to whose memory this monument is erected was mortally wounded approximately one-half mile northwest of this spot during the assault by the French and American forces on the British lines around Savannah, October 9, 1779. General Pulaski was struck by a grapeshot as he rode forward, with customary ardor, from where his cavalry was stationed to rally the disorganized Allied columns. The fatal ball which was removed from his thigh by Dr. James Lynah of South Carolina is in possession of the Georgia Historical Society at Savannah.

Doubt and uncertainty exists as to where Pulaski died and as to his burial - place. A contemporary Charlestown, S.C. newspaper item and other sources indicate that he died aboard a ship bound for that port. It was generally believed that he was buried at sea.

A tradition persisted, however, that General Pulaski died at Greenwich plantation near Savannah and that he was buried there. When the monument here was under erection, the grave at Greenwich was opened. The remains found there conformed, in the opinion of physicians, to a man of Pulaski’s age and stature and were re - interred beneath this memorial in a metallic case in 1854.

Chatham Artillery



Savannah, GA, 31401

These cannon, which were captured when Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown in the American Revolution, were a gift to the Chatham Artillery by President George Washington - a mark of his appreciation for the part the local military company played in the celebration of his visit to Savannah in May, 1791. Washington commended the Chatham Artillery in "warmest terms" and at one of the functions in his honor (which took place on the river bluff east of this spot) proposed a toast "to the present dexterous Corps of Artillery."

The "Washington Guns" have thundered a welcome to many distinguished visitors to Savannah, including James Monroe, the Marquis de Lafayette, James K. Polk, Millard Fillmore, Chester A. Arthur, Jefferson Davis, Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, William H. Taft, and Franklin D. Roosevelt.

During the War Between the States the historic cannon were buried for safety beneath the Chatham Artillery armory and were not removed until 1872 when Federal occupation troops had departed.

The "Washington Guns" were taken to Yorktown in 1881 by a contingent of the Chatham Artillery and led the parade at the centennial celebration of Cornwallis, surrender.

Chatham Artillery



Savannah, GA, 31401

These bronze cannon were presented to the Chatham Artillery by President Washington after his visit to Savannah in 1791. Of English and French make, respectively, they are excellent examples of the art of ordnance manufacture in the 18th century.

An inscription on the British 6 pounder states that it was "surrendered by the capitulation of York Town Oct. 19, 1781." The English cannon was cast in 1758 during the reign of George II and the royal insignia and motto of the Order of the Garter appear on its barrel.

The French gun was manufactured at Strasburg in 1756. On its elaborately engraved barrel appear the coat of arms of Louis XIV, the sun which was the emblem of that monarch, and a Latin inscription (which Louis XIV first ordered placed on French cannon) meaning "Last Argument of Kings." The dolphins were emblematic of the Dauphin of France. The gun was individually named "La Populaire."

Reminders of America’s hard-won struggle for independence and of the great man who led the Continental forces in the Revolution, the historic "Washington Guns" were placed on public display here through co-operation of the Chatham Artillery and the City of Savannah.

Christ Church



Savannah, GA, 31401


I.H.S.
Christ Church
Founded A.D. 1733. Chartered 1789.
Destroyed by Fire 1796. Rebuilt & enlarged 1803.
Injured by a hurricane 1804. Constructed anew 1810.
Taken down, and
This Edifice Erected
1838.

Partially destroyed by fire, rebuilt and improved
1897


Christ Church



Savannah, GA, 31401

This Episcopal Church was the first house of worship established with the founding of Georgia in 1733. Early rectors included the Rev. John Wesley (1736-37), who began the earliest form of Sunday school and published the first English hymnal in the colonies, and the Rev. George Whitefield (1738-40), founder of Bethesda Orphanage. The cornerstone for the first building on this site was laid in 1744. James Hamilton Couper designed the current and third structure in 1838. The 1819 Revere & Son bell continues in use today. One of many prominent members was Juliette Gordon Low, founder of the Girl Scouts of America.

Colonel Mordecai Sheftall



Savannah, GA, 31401

1735 - 1797
As Deputy Commissary General of Issues for Georgia and South Carolina, Colonel Sheftall was the highest ranking Jewish officer in the Revolutionary War. Captured by the British in the Battle of Savannah, Dec. 29, 1778, Sheftall was imprisoned for two years at Antigua and later released in an exchange of prisoners.

Colonial Park



Savannah, GA, 31401

This cemetery, the second in colonial Savannah, was the burying ground for the city from about 1750 until it was closed against burials in 1853.

Among the distinguished dead who rest here are Archibald Bulloch, first President of Georgia; James Habersham, acting royal Governor of the Province, 1771-'73; Joseph Habersham, Postmaster General under three Presidents; Lachlan McIntosh, Major General, Continental Army; Samuel Elbert, Revolutionary soldier and Governor of Georgia; Capt. Denis L. Cottineau de Kerloguen who aided John Paul Jones in the engagement between the 'Bon Homme Richard' and the 'Serapis'; Hugh McCall, early historian of Georgia; Edward Green Malbone, the noted miniaturist, and Colonel John S. McIntosh, a hero of the War with Mexico.

The remains of Major General Nathanael Greene who died in 1786 reposed in the Graham vault until they were reinterred in 1901 in John Square.

The cemetery became a city park in 1896.

Colonial Town Gate



Savannah, GA, 31401

In 1757, during the administration of royal Governor Henry Ellis, a line of earthwork defenses, including a palisade, was erected around Savannah. Immediately west of this marker was located Bethesda Gate, one of the six entrances into the town. Through Bethesda Gate passed the Sea Island Road connecting Savannah and the tidewater settlements to the east and southeast.

This square, Known as Columbia Square, was laid out in 1799. Facing it on the north is the "Davenport House," one of the handsomest examples of Georgian architecture in the South. This finely proportioned dwelling, completed in 1820 was designed and built by its owner, Isaiah Davenport (1784-1827), one of Savannah’s outstanding builder-architects.

In 1956 the "Davenport House" was restored by Historic Savannah Foundation as the first preservation project of that organization. It is open to the public at certain times during the week.

Duellist's Grave



Savannah, GA, 31401

The epitaph to James Wilde on the nearby tomb is a melancholy reminder of the days of duelling and, particularly, of a tragic affair of honor fought January 16, 1815, on the Carolina side of the river near Savannah. Lieutenant Wilde was shot through the heart in a fourth exchange of fire by Captain Roswell P. Johnson, referred to in the epitaph, in bitterness, as "a man who a short time before would have been friendless but for him." The duellists were officers in the 8th Regt. U.S. Infantry. The nature of their quarrel is unknown.

Richard Henry Wilde, the poet and statesman, was the brother of the young officer. Lieutenant Wilde had served in the campaign against the Seminoles and his vivid description of Florida suggested to the poet an epic poem, which, like the life of James Wilde, was cut short by the fatal bullet.

The unfinished poem is remembered for the beauty of a single lyric, the opening stanza of which is:

"My life is like the Summer Rose,
          'That opens to the morning sky;
      'But ere the shades of evening close,
                  'Is scattered on the ground - to die."


Edward Green Malbone (1777-1807)



Savannah, GA, 31401

Beneath this modest slab rest the remains of America's foremost painter of miniatures.

Malbone, a native of Rhode Island, began his career in Providence at the age of seventeen. He pursued his calling in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Charleston and in London, England.

Exacting and unceasing work undermined his constitution. Having sought in vain to recover his health in the island of Jamaica, he came to Savannah in fore-knowledge of death and died here in the home of his cousin, Robert Mackay, on May 7, 1807.

Though not yet thirty years of age when he died, he left no peer in his art. Time has justified the statements you may read here in his epitaph. Today Malbone is acknowledged to by the finest miniaturist his country has yet produced, and among the greatest of all time anywhere.

Gen. James Jackson Home Site



Savannah, GA, 31401

Site of the Home
Presented By The State Of Georgia
- To -
Major General James Jackson
Born 1757 - Died 1806
Revolutionary Hero, Statesman,
And Governor Of Georgia
Placed By
The Savannah Chapter Of The
Daughters Of The American Revolution
1949


Gen. Oglethorpe's Landing



Savannah, GA, 31401

[ Compass ↑ Emblem ]
On February 12, 1733 Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe Landed On This Spot

General Casimir Pulaski Sergeant William Jasper



Savannah, GA, 31401

Near this spot two notable heroes of the American Revolution were mortally wounded in the ill-fated assault by the American and French forces upon the British lines here on October 9, 1779.

Brig. Gen. Casimir Pulaski, the famous Polish patriot, was fatally wounded by a grapeshot as he rode forward into the heavy fire from the British defenses located in this area.

Sergeant William Jasper fell a short distance west of this marker while attempting to plant the colors of the 2nd Regiment of South Carolina Continentals upon British entrenchments.

To their memory and to the memory of the hundreds of gallant soldiers of America and France -- including the French commander-in-chief, Count d`Estaing -- who shed their blood here in the cause of Liberty, this marker is erected.

Georgia Medical Society



Savannah, GA, 31401

The first Medical Society in Georgia, sixth oldest in America, was organized June 28, 1804, and continues to be active in Savannah today. Dr. Noble Wimberly Jones, first President, was the son of a member of General Oglethorpe's first settlers of 1733. Dr. Samuel Roberio Nunez, first practicing physician, arrived July 10, 1733, with the second expedition to the new colony. He arrived in time to treat successfully a raging epidemic of dysentery.

In 1740, the first clinic for the poor opened at nearby Bethesda under Dr. John Hunter and Reverend George Whitefield, who previously had founded America's oldest orphanage there.

The Georgia Medical Society adopted the state's first Code of Medical Ethics, achieved a program of systematic vaccination against smallpox, carried out health surveys of Savannah and surrounding counties, founded a Medical Library, formed the first systematic anti-malarial effort begun in the United States, and conducted extensive studies of Savannah's major epidemic diseases ­ malaria, yellow fever, and smallpox.

Great Indian Warrior / Trading Path



Savannah, GA, 31401

(The Great Philadelphia Wagon Road)

The most heavily traveled road in Colonial America passed through here, linking areas from The Great Lakes to Georgia. Laid on animal trails and Native American Trading/Warrior Paths. treaties among the Governors of New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia and nineteen chiefs of the Iroquois League of Five Nations in 1685 and 1722, opened the colonial backcountry for peaceful settlement and colonization in Georgia. The Path had two branches from Carolina, the western branch to Augusta and the eastern to Savannah, formed to find salt and game.

Home Of Genl Lachlan MacIntosh



Savannah, GA, 31401


First Constitutional Session
of the Georgia Legislature
held in the 'Long Room'
Jany 1783
Headquarters
Genl George Washington
May 1791


Hugh McCall (1767-1823)



Savannah, GA, 31401

Hugh McCall who is buried here was the author of the first history of Georgia.

Forced by ill health into retirement, McCall, who was a Brevet Major, U.S. Infantry, became interested in the history of his adopted State. In spite of severe handicaps, he wrote a much needed history of Georgia. The first volume, which was published at Savannah, in 1811. The second volume, which appeared five years later, carried his "History of Georgia" through the Revolutionary period. Time has not impaired the value and the usefulness of McCall’s work.

His father, Colonel James McCall, played a heroic role in the Revolutionary War in the Carolina. Hugh McCall passed his boyhood during those trying times. The closing words of the first history of this State are an ever timely reminder to posterity that
"The blood which flowed from the suffering patriots of that day, should never be forgotten; and the precious jewel which was purchased by it, should be preserved with courage and remembered with gratitude, by succeeding generations."

Independent Presbyterian Church



Savannah, GA, 31401

Minister ~ Terry L. Johnson
Founded 1755
Present Sanctuary
Erected 1891
For more than 200 years holding aloft the torch of truth

Independent Presbyterian Church



Savannah, GA, 31401

The Independent Presbyterian Church was organized in 1755. The first meeting house stood facing Market Square in Savannah, between what are now St. Julian and Bryan Streets, on property granted by King George II for the use and benefit of those dissenters who were professors of the doctrine of the Church of Scotland agreeable to the Westminster Confession of Faith.

The original church building erected on the present site was designed by John H. Greene, a gifted Rhode Island architect. In 1819 it was dedicated with impressive services which were attended by President James Monroe. The church was destroyed by fire in 1889.

The present church building was completed in 1891. The architect, William G. Preston, followed the general plan of the former structure. It was regarded as a notable example of American church architecture.

Among the distinguished ministers of the Independent Presbyterian Church since its founding have been John Joachim Zubly, 1758- 1781; Henry Kollock, 1805- 1819; Daniel Baker, 1828- 1831; Willard Preston, 1831- 1856, and I.S.K. Axson, 1857- 1891.

Ellen Louise Axson who was born in the manse of the Independent Presbyterian Church in 1860 was married in 1883 to Woodrow Wilson later President of the United States, in a room in the manse.

James Edward Oglethorpe



Savannah, GA, 31401

The monument in this Square to James Edward Oglethorpe - the great soldier-philanthropist who founded the colony of Georgia - was erected by the State of Georgia, the City of Savannah and various Patriotic Societies. Impressive ceremonies marked its unveiling in 1910.

The 9 foot bronze statue of Oglethorpe is the work of one of America's foremost sculptors, the celebrated Daniel Chester French. He has depicted the Founder of Georgia in the full dress of a British general of the period. Oglethorpe is portrayed with sword in hand: alert and ready for council or action. At his feet is a palmetto frond. The statue faces southward symbolizing the threat of Spain's imperial ambitions to the young colony.

The pedestal and base of the monument were designed by Henry Bacon, the eminent New York architect whose collaborations with Daniel Chester French include the Lincoln Memorial. The four lions at the corners of the lower base hold shields on which appear, respectively, the coat of arms of Oglethorpe and the great seals of the Colony of Georgia, the State, and the City of Savannah. On the pedestal of the monument is carved a portion of the text of the charter which was granted by Parliament in 1732 to 'the Trustees for establishing the colony of Georgia in America.'

James Johnston



Savannah, GA, 31401

Here repose the remains of James Johnston (1738-1808) - - editor of Georgia's first newspaper.

A native of Scotland, Johnston settled at Savannah in 1761. 'Recommended as a person regularly bred and well skilled in the Art and mystery of Printing,' he was appointed public printer of the Province by legislative Act during the following year. The first issue of the GEORGIA GAZETTE appeared at Savannah on April 7, 1763, and with some interruptions publication continued until 1802.

In the American Revolution, Johnston sympathized with the Royal Government and, in his words, 'refused to admit to his Paper any of the Seditious publications then circulating through the different Provinces.' He closed his printing press in February, 1776. when British rule was restored in 1779 he returned to Savannah and resumed publication of the newspaper under the title, ROYAL GEORGIA GAZETTE.

A good man and a skilled printer, Johnston did not lose the respect of the Patriots. After the Revolution he was permitted to return. In 1783 he began publication again under the style, GAZETTE OF THE STATE OF GEORGIA. He died in his 70th year, October 4, 1808.

Jane Cuyler



Savannah, GA, 31401

Jane Cuyler (born Jeanne de la Touche) came to Savannah with her husband Teleman in 1768. After his death in 1772, Cuyler took in lodgers, first at her home on the corner of Bull and Broughton Streets, then at an undetermined location on Bay Street. It was at her home on Bay Street that she hosted meetings of Savannah’s Liberty Boys, among them her son Henry Cuyler. After the capture of Savannah by the British, Jane Cuyler’s role in supporting the efforts of the revolutionaries resulted in an arrest warrant issued by Governor Wright in January 1781. By that time, however, Cuyler had followed the advise of friends and fled Savannah.

John Wesley



Savannah, GA, 31401

Preached in the Court House
erected by Oglethorpe
on this lot,
from May 9, 1736
to November 27, 1737 (OS)
- • -
This tablet is here placed
on the bi-centenary of his birth
June 28, 1903


John Wesley, 1703- 1791



Savannah, GA, 31401

Founder of Methodism

On the 'trust lot' south of President Street and immediately west of this square stood in 1736- 37 the parsonage in which John Wesley resided. In the adjoining garden he read, prayed and meditated. Weekly meetings of members of his Christ Church congregation were held in the small wooden dwelling. According to Wesley, 'The first rise of Methodism was in 1729 when four of us met together at Oxford. The second was at Savannah in 1736 when twenty or thirty persons met at my house.'

The monument here was dedicated in 1969. Wesley is depicted at the period of his Georgia ministry, wearing his Church of England vestments. The sculptor, Marshall Daugherty, says of this rendering: 'The moment is as he looks up from his Bible toward his congregation about to speak and stretching out his right hand in love, invitation, and exhortation. In contrast, the hand holding the Bible is intense and powerful - the point of contact with the Almighty.'

Joseph Clay, Patriot



Savannah, GA, 31401

A native of Yorkshire, Joseph Clay (1741-1804) settled at Savannah at the age of nineteen. His uncle, James Habersham, declared that his 'industry' was 'highly commendable' and 'his Abilities for Trade unquestionable.' Fulfilling his early promise, Clay prospered in Georgia as a merchant and rice planter.

He was a staunch supporter of American right, served on the Council of Safety and in the Provincial Congress, and took part in the celebrated raid on the Royal Powder magazine at Savannah in 1775. During the Revolutionary War, Clay rendered efficient and faithful service to the American cause as Deputy Paymaster General of the Continental Army for the Southern Department. His career in the Revolution was distinguished by 'Virtue & fortitude,' said General James Jackson, who also paid high tribute to Clay's wife Ann (whose remains also lie here) for her beneficent care of the American wounded after the Battle of Camden.

In the years following the Revolution, Joseph Clay held several positions of importance, including State Treasurer and Judge of the Inferior Court. He was one of the first trustees for the State College that later became the University of Georgia. He died December 15, 1804. Joseph Clay's published letters (1776-1793) constitute a valuable historical source work for the period.

Joseph Habersham (1751-1815)



Savannah, GA, 31401

The three Habersham brothers - who here rest beside their distinguished father, James Habersham - were prominent patriots in the American Revolution and outstanding public men during the early years of the republic.

JOSEPH HABERSHAM, ardent Son of Liberty and a member of the Council of Safety, took part in the raid on the King's powder magazine in 1775, and in 1776 personally accomplished the dramatic arrest of the Royal Governor, Sir James Wright. He served in the Revolution as a Lieut.-Col. in the Ga. Continental line; was twice Speaker of the General Assembly; Mayor of Savannah, 1792-1793; and Postmaster General of the U.S., 1795-1801.

JOHN HABERSHAM, Major in the first Ga. Continental regt., distinguished himself in the Revolutionary War during which he was twice taken prisoner. He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1785; Commissioner in the Convention which established the Ga.-S.C., boundary; and first Collector of Customs at Savannah.

JAMES HABERSHAM, JR., merchant, actively opposed the revenue acts of Parliament in 1775. He served (as did John Habersham) on the board of Trustees created in 1785 to establish the University of Georgia, and was Speaker of the General Assembly in 1782 and in 1784.

Joseph Vallence Bevan (1798-1830)



Savannah, GA, 31401

Georgia's First Official Historian

There was 'None, No None!' reads the epitaph on this tomb. 'Against Whose Name the Recording Angel Would More Reluctantly Have Written Down Condemnation.'

Born at Dublin, Ireland. son of a Georgia planter, Joseph V. Bevan attended the Univ. of Georgia for two years and graduated in 1816 from the College of S.C. after which he enlarged hie education in England. There he became the friend of the celebrated William Godwin who wrote the young Georgian a widely ~ published letter suggesting a course of studies.

In 1824 Bevan became the first official historian of Georgia. The Legislature empowered him to collect and publish the papers and documents in the State archives. This he did with method and industry and was the first to recognize the importance of copying the Colonial records of Georgia in London.

Bevan served Chatham County in the Legislature in 1827. A former editor of the Augusta Chronicle, he became in 1828 coeditor and co publisher of the Savannah Georgian. His Projected history of Georgia was never completed, death cutting short the career of the popular Savannahian at the age of thirty-two.

Landing of Oglethorpe and the Colonists



Savannah, GA, 31401

James Edward Oglethorpe, the founder of Georgia, landed with the original colonists, about 114 in number, at the foot of this bluff on February 1 (February 12, new style), 1733. The site where he pitched his tent is marked by the stone bench located about 100 feet west of this marker.

Savannah was for more than 100 years built according to Oglethorpe's unique city plan. Bull Street, the principal street of the city, is named in honor of colonel William Bull of Charleston, S.C., who assisted Oglethorpe in laying out the city.

The colonists sailed in the ship Anne from Gravesend, England, November 17, 1732; landed at Charles Town, S.C., January 13, 1733; proceeded later to Beaufort, S.C., and thence, in small boats, through the inland waterway to Yamacraw Bluff. The town site had already been selected by Oglethorpe in friendly negotiation with Tomo-chi-chi, Mico of the Yamacraws, and with Mary Musgrove, the English- speaking, half-breed Indian princess who later, as niece of Emperor Brim of the Creek Nation, claimed sovereignty of southeastern Georgia.

Major John Berrien (1759-1815)



Savannah, GA, 31401

In 1775 John Berrien of New Jersey came to the province of Georgia, where one of his mother's kin had previously settled. His father, John Berrien (1711-1772), was a judge of the supreme court of New Jersey and a trustee of Princeton College. From the Berrien home at Rock Hill, N.J., General Washington issued his farewell address to the army in 1783.

At the age of 17 John Berrien was commissioned 2nd lieutenant in the first Georgia Continental brigade (1776). A few months later he was promoted to 1st lieutenant and the following year he was commissioned captain. A first supporter of General Lachlan McIntosh in the troubles that befell that officer after his slaying of Button Gwinnett in a duel, Berrien followed McIntosh to Washington's headquarters in 1777 and served as a brigade major of the North Carolina troops at Valley Forge.

After the Revolution Berrien returned to Georgia with his family, which included his young son, John MacPherson Berrien, who was destined to become one of Georgia's most illustrious statesmen. Active in pubic life in Georgia, Major John Berrien was for several years Collector of Customs at Savannah; served as an alderman, and was State Treasurer at Louisville (1796-1799). Berrien died at Savannah on November 6, 1815.

Nathanael Greene Monument



Savannah, GA, 31401

Beneath the monument in this Square repose the remains of Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene, of Rhode Island, who died near Savannah on June 19, 1786, at Mulberry Grove Plantation which had been granted to him by this State in appreciation of his services in the Revolution.

The 50 foot, white marble obelisk, designed by the well-known architect, William Strickland, was completed in 1830. The original cornerstone was laid here on March 21, 1825, by Greene's old friend, the Marquis de Lafayette. At the dedicatory ceremony General Lafayette said:
'The great and good man to whose memory we are paying a tribute of respect, affection, and regret, has acted in our revolutionary contest a part so glorious and so important that in the very name of Greene are remembered all the virtues and talents which can illustrate the patriot, the statesman, and the military leader...'

General Greene's remains were originally interred in the burial ground now known as Colonial Cemetery. His exact resting place was a matter of doubt and speculation for many years. The remains of the famed Revolutionary hero were found in the Graham vault in 1901, and were reinterred beneath this monument the following year.

Nathanael Greene, Maj. Gen., Continental Army



Savannah, GA, 31401

This tomb, known as the Graham vault, possesses the distinction of having been the burial place of two heroes of the Revolutionary War, one American and the other British.

Lt. Col. John Maitland of Lauder, Scotland, son of the 6th Earl of Lauderdale, won wide acclaim for his feat in bringing 800 Highlanders and Hessian troops by water from Beaufort to Savannah in Sept. 1779, under the eyes of the French fleet. The timely arrival of these reinforcements enabled Gen. Prevost to defend Savannah against the besieging French and American forces.

Maitland died at Savannah on October 26, 1779, shortly after the siege was raised. The British hero was buried in the vault of the Royalist Lieutenant Governor, John Graham. Col. Maitland's remains were, apparently, removed later to another burial place.

Nathanael Greene of Rhode Island, one of Washington's most brilliant generals, who died on June 19, 1786, at Mulberry Grove near Savannah, was also interred in the Graham vault. His burial place later became the subject of conjecture and remained so until 1901 when this tomb was opened and his remains identified. Gen. Greene's ashes now repose beneath his monument in Johnson Square

New World Medical Plants



Savannah, GA, 31401

On this site
During the 1730's the Trustees of the Georgia Colony, aided by funds from the Worshipful Society Of apothecaries of London sought to grow new world medical plants both for their therapeutic value and for and for the enrichment of empire. The Society's participation is recognized as the first activity of organized pharmacy in America.

Ogeechee Road



Savannah, GA, 31401

Here, in 1735, was the beginning of the road to Darien, now called the Ogeechee Road, probably the first road laid out in Georgia, with the assistance of Tomochichi.

Oglethorpe Bench



Savannah, GA, 31401

On this spot one hundred and seventy three years ago James Oglethorpe the founder of the colony pitched his tent and here rested at the close of the day from which Georgia was settled.
Erected by the Georgia Society of the Colonial Dames of America on 12th of February A.D. - 1906

Oglethorpe's House



Savannah, GA, 31401

1736-1740
On this site
stood the house
occupied by
James Edward Oglethorpe
when in Savannah.
His home he made
in Frederica
the better to protect
the young colony


Old City Exchange Bell



Savannah, GA, 31401

This bell, which is believed to be the oldest in Georgia, bears the date 1802. Imported from Amsterdam, it hung in the cupola of the City Exchange from 1804 until a short time before that building was razed to make way for the present City Hall.

In its day, the bell signaled the closing time for shops and was rung by a watchman when fire broke out. Its rich tones were heard in celebration of American victories during the War of 1812.

It pealed a welcome to such distinguished visitors to Savannah as Monroe, Lafayette, Polk, Fillmore, Clay and Webster and it tolled tributes for America’s illustrious dead.

The tower of the City Exchange, where the bell hung, was a favorite resort of those anxious about arrival of vessels. The replica of the tower in which the historic bell presently reposes was erected in 1957 through the combined efforts of the Savannah Chamber of Commerce, the Pilot Club of Savannah and the Savannah-Chatham Historic Site and Monument Commission.

Old Jewish Burial Ground



Savannah, GA, 31401

Established by Mordecai Sheftall on August 2, 1773 from lands granted him in 1762 by King George III as a parcel of land that 'shall be, and 'forever remain, to and for the use and purpose of a Place of Burial for all persons whatever professing the Jewish Religion.

During the ill fated attempt of the French forces under Admiral Charles Henri, Comte d'Estaing, and the American forces under General Benjamin Lincoln, to recapture Savannah from the British, General Lincoln's Orders of the Day of October 8, 1779 stated that 'The second place of rallying, or the first if the redoubt should not be carried, will be at the Jew's burying ground, where the reserve will be placed.'

According to the account of Captain Antoine-Francoise Terance O'Conner, a military engineer serving with the French forces, on October 9, 1779, shortly after 4:00 A. M. 'The reserve corps, commanded by M. le Vicomte de Noailles, advanced as far as an old Jewish cemetery, and we placed on its right and a little to the rear the four 4-pounders.'

Printing Office of James Johnson



Savannah, GA, 31401

On this site stood the
Printing Office of James Johnson
Official Printer of Laws and
Paper Currency of the province.
He was the founder of
' The Georgia Gazette'
the only newspaper
in the colony. The first issue
appearing April 7,1763


Savannah Volunteer Guards



Savannah, GA, 31401

Organized 1802

As infantry the Corps fought in the War of 1812, Indian Wars and as a battalion in 1861, serving with distinction in defense of Savannah and Charleston. In the spring of 1864 joined Lee`s Army at Petersburg. On April 3, 1865 serving in the rear guard on the retreat to Appomattox having been reduced to 85 men, 23 were killed, 35 wounded and remainder captured. Reorganized in 1872. Served as infantry battalion in the Spanish-American War, as a battalion of the 61 C.A.C in WW-I, and as 118th F.A. Battalion in WW-II where they were awarded 5 Battle Stars. Reorganized after WW-II and is now an active unit in the Georgia National Guard. This armory erected in 1892.

Savannah Waterfront



Savannah, GA, 31401

The colony of Georgia began on Savannah's waterfront in 1733. The riverfront has always played an important role in Georgia, whether as a colonial port, exporter of cotton, or tourist destination. The first commercial house below the bluff opened in 1744. Cotton dominated Savannah's exports throughout the nineteenth century. Construction began in early 1800s for the multi-storied warehouses and 'Factor's Walk,' named for the cotton brokers whose offices were in the upper floors. River Street, was created in 1834 and cobbled with ballast stones. The last cotton office on the waterfront was closed in 1956. River Street's revitalization began in 1977.

Savannah's First Burying Ground



Savannah, GA, 31401

When Savannah was laid out in 1733, the two lots on which this building stands were set aside as a burying ground. William Cox, surgeon, who came on the 'Ann,' was the first of the colonists to die and was buried here with appropriate ceremonies. This burying ground continued in use until a larger cemetery was established which is now known as Colonial Park.

Savannah: Colonial Capital and Birthplace of



Savannah, GA, 31401

In March 1750, the Georgia Trustees in London resolved to allow colonists to elect a representative assembly to meet in Savannah, Georgia's colonial capitol. Sixteen delegates met on January 15,1751, for a twenty-four day session. Representative government continued in 1755 in the Commons House of Assembly, which by 1770 began meeting in a building on the southeast lot of Reynolds Square. In 1777, the new state constitution provided for an elected House Assembly. The Georgia constitution of 1789 expanded the legislature to two houses, known as the General Assembly.

Sergeant Jasper



Savannah, GA, 31401

Sergeant William Jasper, the famed Revolutionary hero, was mortally wounded a few hundred yards northwest of this spot on October 9, 1779, in the ill-fated attack of the American and French forces on the British defenses around Savannah. The monument to Jasper in this Square was unveiled in 1888 with great ceremony.

The 15½ foot bronze statue of Jasper was designed by the distinguished sculptor, Alexander Doyle of New York. The sculptor has depicted the heroic Sergeant bearing the colors of the Second Regiment of South Carolina Continentals during the assault at Savannah. His right hand, in which he holds a sabre, is pressed tight against the bullet wound in his side. Jasper’s bullet-ridden hat lies at his feet. His face, as portrayed by the sculptor, reveals intense suffering and resolute purpose.

The bas relief panels on the North, West and East sides of the monument represent the sculptor’s conception of three episodes in Sergeant Jasper’s Revolutionary career: - the ramparts of Fort Sullivan near Charleston where Jasper, under heavy fire, bravely replaced the flag: the liberation of Patriot prisoners by Jasper and a companion at what is now called Jasper Spring near Savannah: and the dying hero’s last moments after the attack of October 9, 1779.

Site Of Filature



Savannah, GA, 31401

Where colony's production of silk was reeled until 1771. Building then used for public purposes. President Washington attended a ball here in 1791. Building destroyed by fire in 1859.

The Liberty



Savannah, GA, 31401

The armed schooner 'Liberty', the first American Naval vessel officially commissioned early in July 1775 by a Provincial Congress, sailed from this port. She was commanded by Oliver Bowen and Joseph Habersham and carried ten carriage guns and fifty men. She flew the Liberty Flag, a white banner with a red border and the motto ' American Liberty ' imprinted on the field in large red letters. The 'Liberty ' made the first ordered capture in Southern waters of the Revolution on July 9, 1775 when she took off Tybee [ Island]. The British vessel 'Phillipa', commanded by Captain Richard Maitland. Of some six and one half tons of gunpowder taken, over half was sent north for use by the other colonies. The Georgia leaders, Bowen and Habersham went on to command the Georgia Continental Navy and the first Continental Battalion respectively.

The Public Oven and Home for Strangers



Savannah, GA, 31401

On this site
March 29, 1734
when Savannah was an English colony
stood
the public oven and next door
22-24 Congress St.
The house for strangers


The Public Store



Savannah, GA, 31401

On this site
stood in Colonial days
March 29, 1734
the public store, the first
store of the
English colonists


This is Yamacraw Bluff



Savannah, GA, 31401

This is Yamacraw Bluff where the Colony of Georgia was founded February 12, 1733 by Gen.James Edward Oglethrope. Voted by the Georgia Daughters of the American Revolution the Most Historic Spot In Georgia

Tomo-Chi-Chi's Grave



Savannah, GA, 31401

Tomo-Chi-Chi, Mico of the Yamacraws, a tribe of the Creek Indian Nation, is buried in this Square. He has been called a co-founder, with Oglethorpe, of Georgia. He was a good friend to the English, a friendship indispensable to the establishment of the Colony as a military outpost against Spanish invasion. He negotiated with Oglethorpe the treaty formally ratified on May 21, 1733, pursuant to which Georgia was settled. Mary Musgrove, half-breed niece of Emperor Brim of the Creek Indians, acted as interpreter between Oglethorpe and Tomo-Chi-Chi and lent her great influence to the signing of that treaty and to the treaties negotiated by Oglethorpe with other tribes of the Creek Nation.

In 1734, at the age of 84, with his wife Senauki, Tomo-Chi-Chi visited the English Court and was received by the King and by the Archbishop of Canterbury. He as a man of fine physique, tall and of great dignity.

He died October 5, 1739 at Yamacraw Indian Village, and at his request was brought to Savannah to rest among his English friends. He was buried here with military honors.

Tondee's Tavern



Savannah, GA, 31401

On this site
stood in colonial times
Tondee's Tavern
where gathered
The Sons Of Liberty


William Bartram Trail



Savannah, GA, 31401

In 1765 John and William Bartram, naturalists, began an extended trail from Savannah through Georgia and left a legacy of impressions.

William Stephens



Savannah, GA, 31401

First Grand Master,
Grand Lodge Of Georgia, F &AM


Born January 1752 at Beaulieu (Bulie) near Savannah of distinguished English ancestry, William Stephens was an eminent lawyer and jurist during and after the War For Independence.

Georgia’s first Attorney-General he was also Chief Justice of Georgia, Mayor of Savannah and held other important posts of honor. In 1802, President Thomas Jefferson appointed him United States District Court Judge which position he held with distinction until just prior to his death on 6 August 1819.

A dedicated Freemason he was Worshipful Master of Solomon’s Lodge at Savannah prior to 1783. In 1791 he was Worshipful Master of another Savannah Lodge, Union No. 10 (Extinct).

When the Grand Lodge of Georgia, F. & A.M., was organized at Savannah on 16 December 1786 as the Independent and Sovereign Masonic Power in Georgia, William Stephens was elected Grand Master and he served through 1788. In 1793 he was re-elected Grand Master and served continuously through 1813, a record of longevity in that exalted Masonic office never since equaled.

The honored remains of Grand Master Stephens rest in the Colonial Cemetery of Savannah. His Masonic posterity, the nearly 100,000 Freemasons of Georgia, will ever cherish his memory.

Community Histories


Savannah

Savannah

The Yamacraws, a Native American tribe, were the first known people to settle in and around Savannah. In the 18th century, under their leader Tomochichi, they met the newly arriving European settlers.

General James Edward Oglethorpe, a colonial representative of King George II to the American colonies, was sent to create a buffer south of the Savannah River to protect the Carolinas from Spanish Florida and French Louisiana. In November 1732 the ship Anne sailed from Britain carrying 114 colonists, including General James Oglethorpe. On February 12, 1733, after a brief stay at Charles Town, South Carolina, Oglethorpe and his settlers landed at Yamacraw Bluff and, in an example of some of the earliest "Southern hospitality", were greeted by Tomochici, the Yamacraws, and John and Mary Musgrove, Indian traders. (Mary Musgrove often served as a translator.) The city of Savannah was founded on that date, along with the Province of Georgia. Because of the friendship between Oglethorpe and Tomochici, Savannah was able to flourish unhindered by the warfare that marked the beginnings of many early American colonies. In July 1733, five months after the English colonists, 40 Sephardi Jews from Spain and Portugal arrived in Savannah, the largest such group to enter a colony up to that time.

Prior to arriving in America, Oglethorpe and close associates developed an elaborate plan for the growth of towns and regions within the framework of a sustainable agrarian economy and the challenges presented by an often hostile frontier. Features of the plan, now known as the Oglethorpe Plan, especially as it relates to town planning, have been preserved in Savannah, as well as in Darien, Georgia and at Fort Frederica National Monument.

Although religious toleration was beginning to emerge as a value during the Enlightenment, it was the pragmatic need to attract settlers that led to broad religious freedoms. South Carolina wanted German Lutherans, Scottish Presbyterians, Moravians, French Huguenots and Jews as a counter to the French and Spanish Catholic absolutist presence to the south, which was perceived as a threat to their English freedoms.

After Georgia became a royal colony (1754), there were so many dissenters (Protestants of minority, non-Anglican denominations) that the establishment of the Church of England was successfully resisted until 1752. These dissenting churches were the mainstay of the American Revolutionary movement that culminated in the War for Independence from Britain. Through the patriotic and anti-authoritarian sermons of their ministers, these churches fostered and organized rebellion. Whereas the Anglican Church tended to preach stability and loyalty to the Crown, Protestant sects preached heavily from the Old Testament, with its emphasis on freedom and equality of all men before God, and the moral responsibility to rebel against tyrants.

Over the next century and a half, Savannah welcomed other non-English and non-Protestant immigrants: Irish Catholics, French Catholics and Huguenots, Greek Orthodox, and others.

In 1740 George Whitefield founded the Bethesda Orphanage, which is now the oldest extant orphanage in the U.S.

Solomon's Lodge was founded in 1733/4 by James Oglethorpe, and it is considered to be the oldest continuously operating English constituted Masonic Lodge in the western hemisphere. Originally called simply the Lodge of Savannah, it was officially renamed Solomon's Lodge in 1776.

The great experiment came to an end after Savannah and the rest of Georgia became a Royal Colony in 1754. Entrepreneurs and slaves were brought into the struggling colony, and Savannah was made the colonial capital of Georgia. The low marshes were converted into wild rice fields and tended by skilled slaves imported from West Africa (where these strains of rice had been grown by European colonists, who brought rice from its native Southeast Asia. However, attempts to establish a rice industry in Africa failed). The combination of English agricultural technology, and African labor, proved to be of great benefit for the city.

Initially, Creek groups gradually ceded lands to European settlers. In 1763 the Creeks agreed to the first of several large land cessions. This first agreement gave Georgia the land between the Savannah and Ogeechee rivers, south of Augusta, along with coastal land between the Altamaha and St. Marys rivers. An additional two million acres (8000 km²) of land between the Ogeechee and Altamaha rivers and the headwaters of the Oconee and Savannah rivers was ceded to Georgia by the Creeks and Cherokees in 1773.

Additional fortune came to the city in 1763 following the Treaty of Paris, which opened the interior of North America to British economic interests. This was an important milestone in the development of Savannah, as it marks the beginning of economic ties to the interior. Trade, particularly the trade of deerskins, flourished along the upper Savannah River where skins were sent to Augusta and finally through Savannah for export to Europe. The establishment of a trading network on the Savannah River also curtailed Charleston’s monopoly on the South Atlantic deerskin trade. Between 1764 and 1773 Savannah exported hides from 500,000 deer (2 million pounds), which established the city as a significant commercial port on the South Atlantic coast.

In 1778 during the American Revolutionary War, Savannah came under British and Loyalist control. At the Siege of Savannah in 1779, American and French troops fought unsuccessfully to retake the city.

On January 27, 1785, members of the State Assembly gathered in Savannah to found the nation's first state-chartered, public university—the University of Georgia (in Athens). In 1792 the Savannah Golf Club opened within a mile of Fort Jackson, on what is now President Street. It is the first known American golf club.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Savannah,_Georgia", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0